Saturday, November 24, 2007

Mithila Folk Song

The ClassificationThe most important and common type of lyrical folk songs in Maithili is Tirhuti.It represents the most popular and successful indigenous lyrical expression of Tirhut and is the richest of all classes of Maithili songs.All aspects of love affairs are unfolded therein.They sing of separation as well as of union.

The Tirhuti has following classifications:-
Batagamani--It portrays the nayika(heroine) in abhisar, when she goes to meet her lover.It is sung out in a melody.Most of the songs are attributed to have been written by Vidyapati.

Goalari--It depicts the sports and youthful pranks of Krishna in the companies of Gopis of which poet Nandipati is most successful.

Raas-- It deals with Krishna'ssportive lilas with Gopis.The most important writer of Ras is Sahebram Das.The influence of Brajabhasa is conspicuously perceptiblein such songs.

Maana-- It represents a sort of dramatic lyric depicting the annoyance of the beloved and the request of the lovers to mend matters .Umapati is the best writer of Maana.

Other important songs are Samadauni,Lagani,Chaitabara,Malara,Yoga,Uchiti,

Sohara,Choumasa and devotional songs like Nachari,Maheshvani,Gosaunik geet and Visnupada.

Samadauni- On the occasion of the Navaratri,it is sung to bid adieu to goddess Durga.It is sung to bid farewell to ones own daughter when she goes to her husband's house after marriage.All important functions end with the singing of this song,popularly known as Bidai song.Gananath Jha and Vindhyanath Jha have made important contributions in this field.

Lagani-- It is sung by village women folk in the early hours of morning while grinding grains.The classical type of Lagani embodies 4-5 stanzas.Gananath Jha has used it as a medium of fine poetry.

Chaitabar--It represents a class of foik poetry and conveys emotions of love in the month of Chaitra.(March-April) It is also known as Chaiti.

Malara-- It is a seasonal song,sung generally in the dry and rainy seasons,having a distinct raga.

Yoga-- It is sung to bind the bridegroom and thebride,even lover beloved,by divine incantations

Uchiti-- It is sung to convey the courtsey of the host to the distinguished visitor.The Yoga and Uchiti are the two peculiar classes of Maithili songs.These two songs have both literary and folk types.The Yoga songs can be traced back to the days of Vidyapati. Sohara,Barahmasa and Choumasa are the familiar types of all vernacular poetry and are found in almost all the languages of Bihar.

Sohar represents the birth songs. Barahmasa represents the state of separation during the course of twelve months;

Choumasa during the course of four months.These have both literary and folk forms.In Mithila,the ordinary people have to eke out their livlihood with great difficulty and as such long separation from the near and dear ones is a common feature.These songs are the products of such separation and various poets ,now unknown ,composed or contributed to the development of these songs.

Nachari indicates songs representing direct prayer to Siva. Mahesvani is a song about Siva. Nachari and Mahesvani are often confused and kept in common parlance but the difference between the two is real and marked.Nachari refers to the estatic dance of Siva whereas Mahesvani is sung in praise of Siva and is addressed to Manain (Menaka, the mother of Gouri).It represents the life of Siva and more specially his marriage.Vidyapati,Lalkavi,Kanharam Das,Chanda Jha and others have composed some of the best Nacharis and Mahesvanis.

Monday, November 19, 2007

Mithila - An Introduction

Mithila is an ancient cultural region of South Nepal and North India lying between the lower ranges of the Himalayas and the Ganges River. The Nepal border cuts across the top fringe of this region. The Gandak and Kosi Rivers are rough western and eastern boundaries of Mithila.
The Ramayana records a dynastic marriage between Prince Rama of Ayodhya and Sita, the daughter of Raja Janak of Mithila. The town of Janakpur, in the northern Nepali section of Mithila, is believed to be Janak's old capital. Major Areas :

  • Janakpur
  • Rajbiraj
  • Biratnagar

  • Darbhanga
  • Madhubani
  • Sitamarhi
  • Samastipur
  • Purnia
  • Supaul
  • Madhepura
  • Champaran
  • Muzaffarpur
  • Munger
  • Samastipur
  • Begusarai
  • Saharasa

Major Festivals

  • Nag Panchami
  • Janau Purnima
  • Krishna Ashthami
  • Chaurchan
  • Dashami
  • Deepawali
  • Chhath
  • Vivaha Panchami
  • Tila Sankranti
  • Basanta Panchami
  • Maha Shivaratri
  • Holi or Fagu-wa
  • Ramnawami